Anthropological Genetics: Inferring the History of Our Species Through the Analysis of DNA

Looks like you are currently in Russia but have requested a page in the United States site. Would you like to change to the United States site? Mark Stoneking. Molecular anthropology uses molecular genetic methods to address questions and issues of anthropological interest. More specifically, molecular anthropology is concerned with genetic evidence concerning human origins, migrations, and population relationships, including related topics such as the role of recent natural selection in human population differentiation, or the impact of particular social systems on patterns of human genetic variation. Organized into three major sections, An Introduction to Molecular Anthropology first covers the basics of genetics — what genes are, what they do, and how they do it — as well as how genes behave in populations and how evolution influences them.

Molecular clock

The genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , contains information about the evolutionary history of life. Both the relationships amongst organisms and the times of their divergence can be inferred from DNA sequences. Anthropological geneticists use DNA sequences to infer the evolutionary history of humans and their primate relatives. We review the basic methodology used to infer these relationships.

We then review the anthropological genetic evidence for modern human origins. Modern humans likely exchanged genes with Neanderthals prior to or early during their expansion out of Africa.

Currently there are no Biological anthropology articles found within Experimental & Molecular Medicine. Try browsing wider or narrow subjects, or alternatively.

DOI: The source of tuberculosis in ancient Peru, insidious ways that racism can take a toll on health, and the reproductive success of Tibetan highlanders are just a few of the topics that came up recently at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropology. One session, sponsored by the American Association of Anthropological Genetics, presented studies of complex phenotypes—that is, traits arising from multiple genetic, environmental, and cultural risk factors.

An adaptation in the hemoglobin concentration of Tibetan mountain dwellers enables them to live and raise families at high altitudes. For example, Cynthia Beall, of Case Western Reserve University, explores how natural selection may be affecting the reproductive success of people who live on the high mountain plateau bordering Tibet and Nepal, about three kilometers above sea level. Although visitors to the area are subject to altitude sickness as the concentration of hemoglobin in their blood increases rapidly in response to the unfamiliar thin atmosphere, native highlanders tend to have hemoglobin levels similar to those of people living at sea level.

Without this adaptive trait, Tibetan mountain dwellers would have to sustain higher hemoglobin concentrations throughout their lives, at great metabolic cost. Beall and her colleagues wanted to find out whether the adaptation was an instance of natural selection.

Molecular Anthropology

It doesn’t tick, it doesn’t have hands, and it doesn’t tell you what time of day it is. But a molecular clock does tell time—on an epoch scale. The molecular clock, explains Blair Hedges, is a tool used to calculate the timing of evolutionary events.

Molecular genetics is the study of genes at the molecular level. It focuses on the processes that underlie the expression of the genetic.

The master’s degree Biological Anthropology is intended to provide holders of degrees in experimental sciences and the humanities with up-to-date training in human biodiversity, its origin, evolution and the biomedical implications. The program responds to the growing demand for specialists in the area of human biology and physical anthropology, contributing knowledge and methodologies pertaining to this area of specialization and related areas e.

The program focuses primarily on research and offers students the opportunity both to collaborate with businesses working in this field and to complete their final project in collaboration with outside institutions. These studies are aimed at people who are interested in the following areas: Forensic anthropology and the osteological and molecular techniques used in individual identification.

Anthropology applied to archaeology, including taphonomy, demographics and the reconstruction of ancient populations. Human evolution, primatology and prehistory. Molecular anthropology. Biomedical applications of human molecular diversity in cytogenetics, complex diseases and genetic epidemiology. This master’s degree addresses all of these areas in an in-depth and interrelated manner. Learning objectives The master’s degree Human Biology has the following general objectives: To train scientists in the area of anthropology who can foster cross-disciplinary work between experimental sciences and the humanities.

To provide and update knowledge for future professionals in the areas of human evolution, individual variation and human molecular diversity. To provide in-depth skills in the use of basic techniques and tools laboratory and statistical applied to anthropology.

Department of Anthropology Faculty

And our DNA also holds clues about the timing of these key events in human evolution. When scientists say that modern humans emerged in Africa about , years ago and began their global spread about 60, years ago, how do they come up with those dates? Traditionally researchers built timelines of human prehistory based on fossils and artifacts, which can be directly dated with methods such as radiocarbon dating and Potassium-argon dating.

However, these methods require ancient remains to have certain elements or preservation conditions, and that is not always the case.

If this rate is reliable, the gene could be used as a molecular clock. Using molecular clocks to estimate divergence dates depends on other methods of dating.

Hamersly Library LibGuides. Librarians’ Top Picks Anthropology Plus Provides citations for articles and essays on anthropology and archaeology in English and other European languages. PrimateLit Indexes scientific literature on nonhuman primates prosimians, monkeys and apes. The database covers all publication categories articles, books, abstracts, technical reports, dissertations, book chapters, etc.

Other Databases to Try Academic Search Premier Ebsco Academic Search Premier is a multi-disciplinary database that provides citations and full-text for articles published in nearly 4, journals, including more than 3, peer-reviewed titles. JSTOR does not include recently published articles. Due to publisher restrictions, there is a gap, typically from 1 to 5 years, between the most recently published journal issue and the issues available in JSTOR.

PsycINFO Indexes and summarizes more than 2 million scholarly journal articles, book chapters, books, and dissertations in psychology and related disciplines. The database also includes information about the psychological aspects of related fields such as medicine, psychiatry, nursing, sociology, education, pharmacology, physiology, linguistics, anthropology, business, law and others. Google Scholar Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for academic research including journal articles, books, technical reports, conference proceedings, and other scholarly material.

Films on Demand [Anthropology] The Films on Demand database provides a general collection of online streaming videos in many subject areas, including Geography. Available via Summit will arrive in days. Database Search Tips Need help searching databases?

Reconstructing phylogenies and phenotypes: a molecular view of human evolution

We address questions concerning human and microbial population history, the evolution of disease-associated genetic variation, and the relationship between cultural, environmental, and genetic variation. In particular, we are interested in how the relationship between humans and microbes has changed through time and how our microbiomes influence health and disease in diverse populations both today and in the past. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it.

Though chickens Gallus gallus domesticus are globally ubiquitous today, the timing, location, and manner of their domestication is contentious. Until recently, archaeologists placed the origin of the domestic chicken in

Molecular anthropology uses the tools and techniques of molecular genetics to Some studies suggest differing dates for the most recent common ancestor.

Slideshows Videos Audio. Here of some of the well-tested methods of dating used in the study of early humans: Potassium-argon dating , Argon-argon dating , Carbon or Radiocarbon , and Uranium series. All of these methods measure the amount of radioactive decay of chemical elements; the decay occurs in a consistent manner, like a clock, over long periods of time.

Thermo-luminescence , Optically stimulated luminescence , and Electron spin resonance. All of these methods measure the amount of electrons that get absorbed and trapped inside a rock or tooth over time. Since animal species change over time, the fauna can be arranged from younger to older. At some sites, animal fossils can be dated precisely by one of these other methods. For sites that cannot be readily dated, the animal species found there can be compared to well-dated species from other sites.

In this way, sites that do not have radioactive or other materials for dating can be given a reliable age estimate. Molecular clock. This method compares the amount of genetic difference between living organisms and computes an age based on well-tested rates of genetic mutation over time. Page last updated: September 14,

Biological Anthropology

The aim of the study is to prepare students for scientific research work at the level corresponding to the current requirements of science. In the new study, concept integrates physical anthropology, including genetics, ecology, and ethology, the sociocultural anthropology in a holistic approach to the study of humans and populations. The task of teaching, in general, is to learn the theoretical foundations of the field and mastering the techniques and methodology of scientific research work.

In physical anthropology, the methods include somatometry, osteometry, anthropological somatotopy, dermatoglyphic, basics of rent genometry and other morphological and morphometric approaches, including the newly introduced 3D distance learning techniques. Study program in anthropology is provided mainly in the field of forensic anthropology and palaeopathology.

Molecular genetic studies in addition to forensic applications include analysis receptor genes and genetic polymorphisms in the variable regions of human chromosomes and genetics of musculoskeletal and ecogenetics.

Substitution-derived estimates of mutation rates are highly dependent on dating evolutionary lineages from the fossil record, and so are subject to.

We perform large scale quantum mechanical simulations to predict the structure of molecular crystals and investigate the effect of crystal packing on their electronic and optical properties. The massively parallel genetic algorithm GA package, GAtor, relies on the evolutionary principle of survival of the fittest to find low-energy crystal structures of a given molecule. Dispersion-inclusive density functional theory DFT is used for structural relaxation and accurate energy evaluations.

Evolutionary niching is performed by using machine learning to perform clustering on the fly. The structure generation package, Genarris, performs fast screening of randomly generated structures with a Harris approximation, whereby the molecular crystal density is constructed by replicating the single molecule density, which is calculated only once. Many-body perturbation theory, within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation BSE , is then employed to describe properties derived from charged and neutral excitations.

An emerging application of molecular crystals is singlet fission SF , the down-conversion of one photogenerated singlet exciton into two triplet excitons. SF has the potential to significantly increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit by harvesting two charge carriers from one photon. However, the realization of SF-based solar cells is hindered by the dearth of suitable materials. We aim to discover new SF materials and optimize the crystal packing of known materials to enhance SF efficiency.

Molecular anthropology

Founded in , it is the longest-running workshop if its kind, and it has earned worldwide recognition for its rich and intensive learning experience. Students work closely with internationally-recognized scientists, receiving i high-level instruction in the principles of molecular evolution and evolutionary genomics, ii advanced training in statistical methods best suited to modern datasets, and iii hands-on experience with the latest software tools often from the authors of the programs they are using.

The material is delivered via lectures, discussions, and bioinformatic exercises motivated by contemporary topics in molecular evolution. A hallmark of this workshop is the direct interaction between students and field-leading scientists. The workshop serves graduate students, postdocs, and established faculty from around the world seeking to apply the principles of molecular evolution to questions of anthropology, conservation genetics, development, behavior, physiology, and ecology.

The workshop also welcomes participants from federal agencies and science journalists.

Sure, the UIndy Department of Anthropology faculty have years of teaching experience. But more importantly, they have years of actual anthropological and​.

The map above depicts the distribution of admixed language pairs in the sample source: B Bickel. Theories on diffusion or borrowability probabilities tend to be based on case studies of language contact where much of linguistic and social history is known or reconstructable [1] [2] [3]. This incurs either a bias towards shallow time depths, or a strong reliance on individual reconstructions of hand- picked features, with little quantification of uncertainty.

Here we examine contact events known from molecular anthropology and estimate diffusion probabilities by sampling features in large-scale typological databases across all domains of linguistic structure [4] [5] [6] [7]. Molecular anthropology has traced physical contact admixture events in the past few thousand years, across several areas in the world. These events are a sufficient though not a necessary condition for language contact.

We sample cases of two-way contact events from the genetic literature [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] , for which we were able to identify languages that the populations are most probably associated with. We measure similarities between the two languages with regard to the typological features in our databases. Where several languages are likely to be associated with the same genetic population, we resample from the candidates.

Probing Question: What is a molecular clock?

Biological Anthropology Program Summer Deadlines. For the July 20, target date, proposals will be reviewed in the Fall cycle if received by August 31, Important Message.

Various state-of-the-art quantitative and diagnostic methods may be used to this end, including e.g. molecular analyses. Clinical anthropology may also cover.

All publications more feeds Available online on schweizerbart. AA is an international journal of human biology. It publishes original research papers on all fields of human biological research, that is, on all aspects, theoretical and practical of studies of human variability, including clinical anthropology and the application of molecular methods and their tangents to cultural and social anthropology.

Clinical anthropology denotes a growing branch of research within anthropology. It specifically addresses scientific issues of direct or indirect clinical relevance, using the same methods successfully applied in clinical studies. Primary goals of clinical anthropology are e. Various state-of-the-art quantitative and diagnostic methods may be used to this end, including e. Clinical anthropology may also cover anthropological perspectives related to public health issues and include socio-economic and behavioural aspects.

This sub-field of anthropological research and teaching is closely related to or even overlaps with other established disciplines such as evolutionary medicine, physical anthropology, palaeopathology or genetics. Other than research papers, AA invites the submission of case studies, reviews, technical notes and short reports. AA is available online, papers must be submitted online to ensure rapid review and publication.

Molecular Clocks Video